Richard Duke of Gloucester
King of England b. 2 October 1452 - d. 22 August 1485
Richard was born at Fotheringay Castle, the fourth surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Lady Cicely Neville, Duchess of York.
As was customary at this time Richard spent much of his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, under the care and guidence of his uncle Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. He was involved in ongoing battles between different alliances of the House of Lancaster and the House of York factions during the last half of the 15th Century. At the time of the death of his father and older brother Edmund at the Battle of Wakefield, Richard was still a boy, and it was then that he was taken into the care of Warwick.
The Earl of Warwick was a key player in the replacement of the weak king, Henry VI for Richard's eldest brother, Edward. Another child in the household was Warwick's daughter Anne Neville, whom Richard would later marry.
The Battle of Tewkesbury marked a decisive Yorkist victory against the Lancastrians. After some plotting involving his brother George Duke of Clarence, Richard married the widowed Anne Neville, younger daughter of the late Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. Anne's first husband had been Edward of Westminster, son of Henry VI. Following his death at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. Their marriage took place on 12 July 1472.
Richard and Anne had one son, Edward Plantagenet (also known as Edward of Middleham, 1473 – 9 April 1484), who died not long after being created Prince of Wales. Richard also had a number of illegitimate children, including John of Gloucester and a daughter named Katharine-married to William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Haute, who is mentioned in household records. Both of these children survived Richard. Neither apparently left any descendents.
After much messy plotting and intrigue (the death of the princes in the tower included) Richard was finally crowned King at Westminster Abbey on July 6 1483. He stayed on the throne for precisely 2 years, 2 months and 2 days before being killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field on August 22 1485. He was the last medieval King to ride out in battle.